Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit.These deposits form a mineralized commodity that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its energy content and since the 1880s has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore and for cement production. In the United Kingdom and South Africa, a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine is called a 'pit,
The health and environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products.In addition to atmospheric pollution, coal burning produces hundreds of millions of tons of solid waste products annually, including fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization sludge, that,
The negative effects of coal mining cannot be disputed: Destruction of Landscapes and Habitats: Strip mining also known as surface mining, involves the stripping away of earth and rocks to reach the coal underneath. If a mountain happens to be standing in the way of a coal seam within, it will be blasted or levelled - effectively leaving a,
The effects of mining coal persists for years after coal is removed.,In China, coal mining has degraded the quality of land of an estimated 3.2 million hectares, according to a 2004 estimate. The overall restoration rate (the ratio of reclaimed land area to the total degraded land area) of mine wasteland was only about 10–12 percent.,
Layers of rock and dirt above and between the coal seams are removed. Coal seams are removed with excess soil and rock placed in an adjacent valley. Large scale earth moving equipment is used to excavate and remove coal from lower layers. The equipment used depends on the method and scale of the surface mining method being employed.
Reclamation Coal mining requires large areas of land to be temporarily disturbed. Steps are taken minimise impacts on all aspects of the environment. By carefully pre-planning projects, implementing pollution control measures, monitoring the effects of mining and rehabilitating mined areas, the coal industry minimises the impact of its,
Open Pit Mining. Open pit mining is similar to area mining. The technique is common in the western United States (and other parts of the world) where very thick — 50 to 100 foot — coal seams exist. Open pit mines are usually large operations. Production levels may exceed 10 million tons of coal per year.. The thick coal seams found at these large mines ensure that the amount of land,
The environmental problems associated with active and abandoned mines and their abatement, particularly land reclamation and water quality maintenance, and the proper handling and disposal of the spoils and wastes from mining operations (e.g., mountain top coal mining, coal combustion residues), also receive regulatory attention from the U.S,
Jun 15, 2021· And it concludes the government has failed to consider the cascade of environmental effects that steel-making coal mining would create, especially in combination with
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